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Celtis occidentalis

A deciduous tree reaching heights of 50-75'. It usually has a rounded crown of spreading or slightly dropping branches, often deformed by bushy growths on the ends of the branches called "witches' broom." Used in upper shoreline zones, stream bank stabilization, upland slope buffers and shelterbelts. It has been used well in polluted urban conditions and as a street tree. A hardy tree that can withstand many stresses.

USDA symbol: CEOC

General Information

Plant TypeTree
Height40 to 50 feet
Light ExposureSun, Part Sun
Soil MoistureDry
Bloom ColorWhite, Yellow, Green
Hackberry (Hackberry<div><em class="small">Celtis occidentalis</em></div>)
Photo credit: Minnesota Wildflowers (Click to enlarge)


Flooding / Inundation ToleranceModerate
General Resilience9
Salt ToleranceLow
Stress ToleranceDrought Tolerant, General Disturbance

Pollinator Value: Medium

Bloom MonthsApril to May
Larval Host ofButterflies, Moths
Specific Pollinators HostedAsterocampa celtis, Asterocampa clyton, Isturgia dislocaria, Libytheana carinenta, Rifargia subrotata
Pollinator BenefitProvides Nectar

Project Planning

Project TypeErosion Control, Restoration, Sandy or Engineered Soils
Coefficient of Conservatism4
Herbivore SensitivityMedium
Rate of SpreadSlow
Soil StabilizationDeep
Vegetative ReproductionAbsent


CountyAitkin, Anoka, Beltrami, Benton, Big Stone, Blue Earth, Brown, Carver, Cass, Chippewa, Chisago, Clay, Cottonwood, Crow Wing, Dakota, Dodge, Douglas, Faribault, Fillmore, Freeborn, Goodhue, Grant, Hennepin, Houston, Isanti, Jackson, Kandiyohi, Lac qui Parle, Le Sueur, Lincoln, Lyon, Martin, McLeod, Meeker, Mille Lacs, Morrison, Mower, Murray, Nicollet, Nobles, Norman, Olmsted, Otter Tail, Pine, Pipestone, Pope, Ramsey, Redwood, Renville, Rice, Rock, Sherburne, Sibley, Stearns, Steele, Swift, Todd, Wabasha, Waseca, Washington, Watonwan, Wilkin, Winona, Wright, Yellow Medicine
EcoregionDriftless Area, Lake Agassiz Plain, North Central Hardwood Forests, Northern Glaciated Plains, Northern Lakes and Forests, Northern Minnesota Wetlands, Western Cornbelt Plains
Approximate Eco ProvinceEastern Broadleaf Forest, Laurentian Mixed Forest, Prairie Parkland, Tallgrass Aspen Parklands